The International Court of Justice (ICJ) has ruled that Japan’s whaling program in the Antarctic is not for scientific purposes and has forbidden the granting of further whaling permits. The finding by a 16-judge panel at the ICJ is in favour of Australia’s argument that Japan’s whaling program is carried out for commercial purposes. Japan has been able to kill unlimited numbers of whales in the Antarctic under the treaty, arguing that they do so for scientific purposes. But the court’s judges agreed with Australia that the Japanese research - two peer-reviewed papers since 2005, based on results obtained from just nine killed whales - was not proportionate to the number of animals killed. The ICJ’s ruling is final and there will be no appeal.